Table 1. Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) population trend classification system.
 
Classification
No. of Routes
Trend
Sig. of Trend
Definitely increasing
n > 14
Tr > 1%
P < 0.05
9 < n < 13
Tr > 1%
P < 0.01
Likely increasing
n > 14
Tr > 1%
0.05 < P < 0.1
9 < n < 13
Tr > 1%
0.01 < P < 0.05
5 < n < 8
Tr > 1%
P < 0.01
Possibly increasing
n > 14
Tr > 1%
P > 0.1
9 < n < 13
Tr > 1%
0.05 < P < 0.1
5 < n < 8
Tr > 1%
0.01 < P < 0.05
1 < n < 4
Tr > 1%
P < 0.01
Increasing tendency
9 < n < 13
Tr > 1%
P > 0.1
5 < n < 8
Tr > 1%
0.05 < P < 0.1
5 < n < 8
Tr > 5%
P > 0.1
1 < n < 4
Tr > 1%
0.01 < P < 0.05
Definitely decreasing
n > 14
Tr < -1%
P < 0.05
9 < n < 13
Tr < -1%
P < 0.01
Likely decreasing
n > 14
Tr < -1%
0.05 < P < 0.1
9 < n < 13
Tr < -1%
0.01 < P < 0.05
5 < n < 8
Tr < -1%
P < 0.01
Possibly decreasing
n > 14
Tr < -1%
P > 0.1
9 < n < 13
Tr < -1%
0.05 < P < 0.1
5 < n < 8
Tr < -1%
0.01 < P < 0.05
1 < n < 4
Tr < -1%
P < 0.01
Decreasing tendency
9 < n < 13
Tr < -1%
P > 0.1
5 < n < 8
Tr < -1%
0.05 < P < 0.1
5 < n < 8
Tr < -5%
P > 0.1
1 < n < 4
Tr < -1%
0.01 < P < 0.05
Definitely stable
n > 14
-0.5% < Tr < 0.5%
--
Likely stable
n > 14
-1.0% < Tr < 0.5%
--
n > 14
0.5% < Tr < 1.0%
--
Possibly stable
9 < n < 13
-1.0%< Tr < 1.0%
--
Stable tendency
5 < n < 8
-1.0%< Tr < 1.0%
--

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Table 2. Trend classifications of all species with adequate data for calculating Sierra-wide BBS trends.
 
Negative Trends
Positive Trends
Stable Trends
Definitely Decreasing: Definitely Increasing: Definitely Stable
Band-tailed Pigeon Cassinís Vireo Mountain Quail
Olive-sided Flycatcher Red-shafted Flicker
Western Wood-Pewee Hammondís Flycatcher
Stellerís Jay Audubonís Warbler
Mountain Chickadee Western Tanager
American Robin
Chipping Sparrow
Dark-eyed Junco
Brown-headed Cowbird
Lesser Goldfinch
Likely Decreasing: Likely Increasing: Likely Stable:
Golden-crowned Kinglet Tree Swallow Hairy Woodpecker
Green-tailed Towhee Warbling Vireo
Cassinís Finch Red-breasted Nuthatch
Hermit Warbler
MacGillivrayís Warbler
Fox Sparrow
Possibly Decreasing: Possibly Increasing: Possibly Stable:
Mourning Dove Annaís Hummingbird  Barn Swallow
Belted Kingfisher White-headed Woodpecker House Wren
Acorn Woodpecker Dusky Flycatcher Black-throated Gray Warbler
Red-breasted Sapsucker Hermit Thrush Lazuli Bunting
White-breasted Nuthatch Spotted Towhee Red-winged Blackbird
Brown Creeper Red Crossbill
Winter Wren
Townsendís Solitaire
Orange-crowned Warbler
Nashville Warbler
Yellow Warbler
Black-headed Grosbeak
Brewerís Blackbird
Decreasing Tendency: Increasing Tendency: Stable Tendency:
California Quail Mallard Turkey Vulture
Common Nighthawk  Red-tailed Hawk American Dipper
White-throated Swift Blue Grouse Mountain Bluebird
Pileated Woodpecker Pacific-slope Flycatcher
Violet-green Swallow Common Raven
Bushtit Cliff Swallow
Bewickís Wren Western Bluebird
Ruby-crowned Kinglet Wrentit 
Swainsonís Thrush European Starling
Wilsonís Warbler Song Sparrow
White-crowned Sparrow
Purple Finch
Pine Siskin
Evening Grosbeak

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Table 3. Species with statistically significant Sierra-wide BBS population trends.
 
Species
Trend (% change/ yr)
Signif. Level1
No. of Routes
Decreasing Trends
Band-tailed Pigeon
-5.69
***
14
Mourning Dove
-4.28
*
13
Belted Kingfisher
-19.16
***
4
Acorn Woodpecker
-5.34
**
7
Olive-sided Flycatcher
-3.75
***
17
Western Wood-Pewee
-2.87
***
17
Stellerís Jay
-1.73
**
17
Mountain Chickadee
-1.89
**
16
Winter Wren
-5.00
**
7
Golden-crowned Kinglet
-4.02
*
17
American Robin
-3.07
***
17
Green-tailed Towhee
-3.88
**
12
Chipping Sparrow
-6.29
***
16
White-crowned Sparrow
-8.82
**
4
Dark-eyed Junco
-2.80
**
17
Brown-headed Cowbird
-4.85
***
15
Cassinís Finch
-3.06
*
14
Lesser Goldfinch
-6.80
***
9
Increasing Trends
Annaís Hummingbird
+62.32
*
9
Cassinís Vireo
+3.98
**
16
Tree Swallow
+6.13
**
12
Red Crossbill
+5.91
*
7

1* = p < 0.1, ** = p < 0.05, *** = p < 0.01.

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Table 4. Species that depend critically on montane meadow habitat in the Sierra.
 
 

Species

BBS trend
Great Gray Owl insufficient data
Long-eared Owl insufficient data
Vauxís Swift insufficient data
Belted Kingfisher possibly decreasing
Red-naped Sapsucker insufficient data
Red-breasted Sapsucker possibly decreasing
Willow Flycatcher insufficient data
Tree Swallow likely increasing
Northern Rough-winged Swallow insufficient data
House Wren possibly stable
Swainsonís Thrush decreasing tendency
American Robin definitely decreasing
Orange-crowned Warbler possibly decreasing
Nashville Warbler possibly decreasing
Yellow Warbler possibly decreasing
MacGillivrayís Warbler likely stable
Wilsonís Warbler decreasing tendency
Chipping Sparrow definitely decreasing
Song Sparrow increasing tendency
Lincolnís Sparrow insufficient data
White-crowned Sparrow decreasing tendency
Lazuli Bunting possibly stable
   

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Table 5. Species that are strongly associated with montane meadow habitat, but cannot be said to depend critically on it.
 
 

Species

BBS trend
Dusky Flycatcher possibly increasing
Black Phoebe insufficient data
Warbling Vireo likely stable
Western Bluebird  increasing tendency
Mountain Bluebird stable tendency
Vesper Sparrow insufficient data
Sage Sparrow insufficient data
Grasshopper Sparrow insufficient data
Dark-eyed Junco definitely decreasing
Red-winged Blackbird possibly stable
Western Meadowlark insufficient data
Pine Grosbeak insufficient data
Purple Finch decreasing tendency
Cassinís Finch likely decreasing
Lesser Goldfinch definitely decreasing
   

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Table 6. Species that depend critically on late successional/old growth forest.
 
 

Species

BBS trend
   
Northern Goshawk insufficient data
Spotted Owl insufficient data
Vauxís Swift insufficient data
White-headed Woodpecker possibly increasing
Pileated Woodpecker decreasing tendency
Red-breasted Nuthatch likely stable
Pygmy Nuthatch insufficient data
Brown Creeper possibly decreasing
Winter Wren possible decreasing
Hermit Warbler likely stable
Purple Finch decreasing tendency
Cassinís Finch likely decreasing
Evening Grosbeak decreasing tendency

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Table 7. Species that substantially utilize late successional/old growth forest, but cannot be said to depend critically on it.
 
 

Species

BBS trend
   
Blue Grouse increasing tendency
Band-tailed Pigeon definitely decreasing
Flammulated Owl insufficient data
Northern Pygmy Owl insufficient data
Long-eared Owl insufficient data
Northern Saw-whet Owl insufficient data
Red-naped Sapsucker insufficient data
Red-breasted Sapsucker probably decreasing
Williamsonís Sapsucker insufficient data
Hairy Woodpecker likely stable
Black-backed Woodpecker insufficient data
Olive-sided Flycatcher definitely decreasing
Willow Flycatcher insufficient data
Hammondís Flycatcher definitely stable
Stellerís Jay definitely decreasing
Tree Swallow likely increasing
Chestnut-backed Chickadee insufficient data
White-breasted Nuthatch likely stable
Golden-crowned Kinglet likely decreasing
Hermit Thrush possibly increasing
Varied Thrush insufficient data

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Table 8. Species that depend critically on oaks or oak woodland.
 
 

Species

BBS trend
   
Band-tailed Pigeon definitely decreasing
Flammulated Owl insufficient data
Western Screech-Owl insufficient data
Annaís Hummingbird possibly increasing
Acorn Woodpecker possibly decreasing
Nuttallís Woodpecker insufficient data
Ash-throated Flycatcher insufficient data
Cassinís Vireo definitely increasing
Huttonís Vireo insufficient data
Stellerís Jay definitely decreasing
Scrub Jay insufficient data
Oak Titmouse insufficient data
White-breasted Nuthatch possibly decreasing
House Wren possibly stable
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher insufficient data
Western Bluebird increasing tendency
Phainopepla insufficient data
Orange-crowned Warbler possibly decreasing
Nashville Warbler possibly decreasing
B.-throated Gray Warbler possibly stable
Black-headed Grosbeak possibly decreasing
Bullockís Oriole insufficient data
Lesser Goldfinch definitely decreasing
Lawrenceís Goldfinch insufficient data

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Table 9. Species that substantially utilize oaks or oak woodland but cannot be said to depend critically on them.
 
 

Species

BBS trend
   
California Quail decreasing tendency
Bushtit decreasing tendency
Bewickís Wren decreasing tendency
Spotted Towhee possibly increasing
Lazuli Bunting possibly stable
Purple Finch decreasing tendency

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Table 10. Explanation of classification system for migratory status of Sierra bird species (after DeSante 1995).
 
 

Migratory Status

Code
Description
Resident
R
Year-round resident in the Sierra; most populations are sedentary.
Resident/short-distance migrant
R-SDM
Year-round resident in at least part of the Sierra, but migration to lower levels or movement out of the Sierra is apparent in at least some years.
Short-distance migrant
SDM
Most Sierra populations are migratory but winter at temperate latitudes in the U.S. or northern Mexico.
Short-distance/Neotropical migrant
SD-NTM
Most populations are migratory and winter regularly in both temperate and tropical latitudes. In many cases it is unclear exactly where Sierra populations winter.
Neotropical migrant
NTM
Most Sierra populations winter in tropical latitudes.

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