SPECIES: Vaux’s Swift (Chaetura vauxi)
Author: John Sterling (Jones & Stokes) JohnS@jsanet.com
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SUBSPECIES STATUS: Five subspecies, but only C. v. vauxi
in western United States and Canada.
MANAGEMENT STATUS: Vaux’s Swift is a California Species of Concern (DFG).
RANGE MAPS (California): From Sterling and Paton (1996)—Figure
1. Current distribution of Vaux's Swift and old-growth redwood in northwestern
California. Old-growth redwood distribution based on Fox (1989). Open circles=no
swifts detected on murrelet transect; Filled circles=swifts detected on
murrelet transect; Filled squares=probable swift breeding site based on
Shuford (1993). Numbered polygons: (1) Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park,
(2) Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, (3) Redwood National Park, (4) Pacific
Lumber Company lands, (5) Humboldt Redwoods State Park, (6) Miranda, (7)
Russian Gulch/Van Damme State Parks, (8) Standish Hickey State Park, (9)
Armstrong Redwoods State Park, (10) Samuel P. Taylor State Park.
From Sterling and Paton (1996)—Figure 2.
Current distribution of Vaux’s Swift in California. Open circle=no detections
on BBS route, Filled circle=detections on BBS route, Filled square=single
and multiple detections based on data from Am. Birds and unpublished
During 129 Marbled Murrelet surveys conducted in 1989 from Del Norte to Sonoma County, Vaux’s Swifts were detected on 48 (37.2%) of these surveys (Sterling and Paton 1996) (see fig.1).
c. Nest searching: no current information
Marin County (Shuford 1993): Nests only in small numbers, with most
sightings on the southern part of Bolinas Ridge.
Monterey County (Roberson and Tenney 1993): Prior to 1980 there were
reports of suspected breeding. Since then, numerous sightings of pairs in
the Big Sur region suggest that a small, local population has become
Humboldt County (Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, G.A., Power, J., and Fix, D.
The study period was 1995 to 1999. We "surveyed" A total of 425 blocks were surveyed including: 18 blocks with confirmed breeding, 30 blocks with probable breeding, and 80 blocks with possible breeding. This info should be considered "draft"; maps and raw data printouts are not yet ready for release. All confirmed records were from within the redwood zone.
f. Other/Local opinion: see Appendix A.
I. Average territory size: Not territorial (Bull and Collins 1993). Home range included up to 5.4 kmfrom nest, however most of the time, the radio-tagged swifts were within 1.0 km of nest (Bull and Beckwith 1993).
II. Time of occurrence and seasonal movements.
A. Arrival date on breeding grounds: mid April to mid May
B. Departure date from breeding grounds: mid August to early September
C. Spring migration period: mid April to late May
D. Fall migration period: mid August to early October
E. Extent of wintering in CA: very rare in winter along central and north coast from Monterey County (Roberson 1985) north to Lake Earl in Del Norte County (Harris 1996). Sometimes roosting in flocks in snags. Also very rare in winter in southern California (Garrett and Dunn 1981).
III. Migration stop-over needs/characteristics:
B. Habitat use: Often found foraging over lakes and ponds near or along the coast. Communal roosts are often in chimneys during migration especially in areas lacking suitable hollow snags for roost sites. Migrating swifts can be found flying over a range of habitats from grasslands, desert scrub and chaparral to mature coniferous forests.
C. Routes: Migration is concentrated on the coast, along ridge tops and along the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada, especially during spring.
IV. Nest type: open cup nest attached by saliva on one side to a structure such as the interior wall of a hollow snag or a man-made chimney (Bull and Collins 1993).
V. Foraging strategy: Forage for aerial insects while on the wing.
Often forage over ponds and lakes
and other sites with concentrations of their prey including air thermals. Radio-tagged swifts in Oregon foraged 20-50 meters above conifer forests 60% of their time and over grasslands 10% of their time, however with less than 2% of open water in their study area, swifts selectively foraged over water 30% of their time (Bull and Collins 1993).
VI. Displays: Aerial courtship display consists of both birds flying close together and raising wings to aV-wing display and holding that position for a few seconds. Differs from similar display in Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) in that the birds do not rock back and forth, but hold wings and body steady (pers. obs.).
VII. Social Organization:
B. Mating system: Monogamous; pairs form shortly after arrival on breeding grounds (Bull and Collins 1993). The extent or existence of extra-pair copulations is unknown.
C. Delayed breeding (where are immature birds?): Unknown but probably breeding at 1 year (Bull and Collins 1993).
D. Post fledging biology of offspring (where do they go and when?): Some remain at nest chamber, others join communal roosts within a few days of fledging (Bull and Collins 1993). All birds migrate south in August and September.
E. Post breeding social behavior (mixed species flocks, or simply migrate away?): Most join communal roosts (Bull and Collins 1993) and during migration will often form large flocks. They often roost in large chimneys during migration with very large flocks known from communal roosts in the Los Angeles area.
IX. Incubating sex: Ventral brood patch on both parents (Bull and Collins 1993).
X. Incubation period: 18-19 days (Baldwin and Zaczkowski 1963).
XI. Nestling period: Young fledge 28 days after hatching (Baldwin and Zaczkowski 1963), and brooding occurs during first week after hatching (Bull and Collins 1993).
XII. Development at hatching: altricial (naked).
XIII. Number of broods: one as far as known (Bull and Collins 1993).
XIV. Who tends the young: both parents feed young (Bull and Collins 1993).
A. Major food items (by season): aerial arthropods throughout the year (Bull and Collins 1993). Bull and Beckwith (1993) quantified 223 food boluses that included 43% Homoptera, 27% Diptera, 18% Ephermerida and a few Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, spiders and other arthropods.
B. Drinking: They drink while on the wing. Often seen drinking by skimming over the surface of lakes and ponds. They may possibly drink rain drops.
XVI. Wintering ground needs and distribution: General wintering distribution for species occurs over a wide range from central Mexico south to Venezuela. However, the exact wintering distribution for California population (C. v. vauxi) is not well known due to difficulty in distinguishing them from the resident populations in the wintering range.
BREEDING HABITAT AND NEST SITE CHARACTERISTICS:
I. Overview of breeding habitat: Breeding forested habitat varies from east-side ponderosa pine, to Douglas fir and mixed-conifer in the Sierra Nevada, coastal redwood, and Douglas fir in inland sites in the northcoast ranges. Other locations are situated within suburban areas where nests are located in suitable chimneys.
II. Nest Site.
B. Fragmentation: unknown relevance
C. Patch size: unknown relevance
D. Disturbance (natural or managed): Appears to not be
immediately effected by logging if
residual, large snags are left: many of the nests located in the 1920s and 30s were in clearcuts (Dawson 1923, unpublished data from 1920-30’s egg collections of John Davis, C.I. Clay, G.A. Howlett and John Zerlang). However, long-term effects of logging include increased vulnerability to knockdown of snags by wind and reduction in snag recruitment. Fire may help to create suitable nesting snags.
E. Adjacent land use: Nests have been found in residual snags in clear cuts (Dawson 1923), within urban and suburban areas in Santa Clara and Sonoma Counties and in residual snags/conifer stands adjacent to rangeland (pers. obs.).
POPULATION TREND: Little known and current knowledge is limited to Breeding Bird Survey data at http://www.mbr.nbs.gov/bbs/bbs.html. This data should be interpreted with caution as the survey method may not accurately or appropriately measure Vaux’s Swift population trends.
ASSOCIATED SPECIES: Primary and secondary cavity nesting species that would benefit from snag management for nest sites of Vaux’s Swifts include: Pileated, Hairy and White-headed Woodpeckers, Red-breasted and Williamson’s Sapsuckers, Purple Martin, Tree and Violet-green Swallows, White-breasted, Red-breasted and Pygmy Nuthatches and Mountain Chickadee.
MONITORING METHODS AND RESEARCH NEEDS: from Sterling and Paton (1996)
Section 2: Action plan summary.
STATUS: Common near coast in regions with old-growth or mature stands of redwood and other conifers. Locally rare at inland sites in the northcoast range, locally uncommon in the mid-elevations of the Sierra Nevada (1,500 to 4,500 ft.), locally uncommon east of the Sierra Nevada/Cascade divide in northeastern California. Locally uncommon at inland valleys from Santa Clara County north to Sonoma County where they nest in man-made chimneys.
HABITAT NEEDS: Suitable nest sites are required i.e. large hollow snags, snags with large exit holes—broken tops or old Pileated Woodpecker cavities, brick man-made chimneys without insulated pipe inserts or screen spark-arresters. Close proximity to large water bodies that attract concentration of aerial insect prey may be important.
CONCERNS: Chief concerns are the effects of forest management on the availability of nest sites, especially clear cutting, selective harvesting of mature or old-growth trees, and selective snag removal.
OBJECTIVES and ACTIONS: The primary long-term objective would be to increase availability of suitable nest trees/snags through changes in forest management. The primary short-term objective would be to identify the current nest sites, especially at inland locations and provide protection to these currently used nest trees/snags.
Baldwin, P. H., and Hunter, W. F. 1963. Nesting and nest visitors of the Vaux's Swift in Montana. Auk 80:81-85.
Baldwin, P. H., and Zaczkowski, N. K. 1963. Breeding biology of the Vaux Swift. Condor 65:400-406.
Bent, A.C. 1940. Vaux’s Swift in Life Histories of North American Cuckoos, Goatsuckers, Hummingbirds and their Allies. Smithsonian Institution, United States Museum. Bulletin 176.
Bull, E. L. 1991. Summer roosts and roosting behavior of Vaux’s Swifts in old-growth forests. Northwest Naturalist 72:78-82.
Bull, E. L., and Beckwith, R. C. 1993. Diet and foraging behavior of Vaux's Swifts in northeastern Oregon. Condor 95:1016-1023.
Bull, E. L., and Collins, C. T. 1993. Vaux’s Swift (Chaetura vauxi). in The Birds of North America (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). No. 77. The Acad. of Nat. Sci. Philadelphia.
Bull, E. L., and Cooper, J. D. 1991. Vaux's Swift nests in hollow trees. W. Birds 22:85-91.
Bull, E. L., and Hohman, J. E.. 1993. The association between Vaux's Swifts and old-growth forests in northeastern Oregon. W. Birds 24:38-42.
Burridge, B. (ed.) 1995. Sonoma County Breeding Bird Atlas. Madrone Audubon Soc., Santa Rosa, CA.
Carey, A. B. 1989. Wildlife associated with old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Nat. Areas J. 9:151-162.
Dawson, W. L. 1923. The Birds of California. South Moulton Co., San Diego.
Gaines, D. 1992. Birds of Yosemite and the East Slope. Artemisia Press, Lee Vining, CA.
Garrett, K. and J. Dunn. 1981. Birds of Southern California: Status and Distribution. Los Angeles Audubon Society, LA, CA.
Grinnell, J., and Miller, A.H. 1944. The distribution of the birds of California. Pac. Coast Avifauna 27.
Grinnell, J. and T.I. Storer. 1924. Animal Life in the Yosemite. Univ. of CA. Press. Berkeley, CA. p.752.
Grinnell, J. and M.W. Wythe. 1927. Directory to the Bird-life of the San Francisco Bay Region. Cooper Ornithological Society. Pacific Coast Avifauna No. 18.
Harris, S.W. 1996. Northwestern California Birds. Humboldt State Univ. Press, Arcata, CA.
Huff, M. H., and Raley, C. M.. 1991. Regional patterns of diurnal breeding bird communities in Oregon and Washington. in Wildlife and vegetation communities of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff. (eds.). pp. 177-206. U.S. Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285.
Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, G.A., Power, J., and Fix, D. in prep. Humboldt County Breeding Bird Atlas.Redwood Region Audubon Society, Eureka, CA.
Maillard, J. 1927. The Birds and Mammals of Modoc County, California. Proc. Calif. Acad. of Sciences. Vol. XVI, No. 10 pp. 261-359.
Ralph, C. J., Paton, P. W., and Taylor, C. A.. 1991. Habitat association patterns of breeding birds and small mammals in Douglas-fir/hardwood stands in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. in Wildlife and vegetation communities of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff, (eds.). pp. 379-394. U.S. Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285.
Roberson, D. 1985. Monterey Birds. Monterey Peninsula Audubon Society, Carmel, CA.
Roberson, D., and Tenney, C. (eds). 1993. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Monterey County, California. Monterey Peninsula Audubon Soc., Carmel, CA.
Shuford, D. 1993. Marin County Breeding Bird Atlas. Bushtit Press, Bolinas, CA.
Sterling, J. and P. Paton. 1996. Breeding Distribution of Vaux’s Swift in California. Western Birds 27: 30-40.
Thompson, B. C. 1977. Behavior of Vaux's Swifts nesting and roosting in a chimney. Murrelet 58:73-77.
Zeiner, D., Laudenslayer, W. F., Mayer, K., & White, M. (eds.).
1990. California's Wildlife, vol. 2. California Dept. Fish and Game, Sacramento.
COUNTY LOCATION DATE OBSERVER
Butte Butte Meadows June & July 1973 D. Gaines
Contra Costa Walnut Creek 12 June 1972 W. Purcell
Contra Costa Alamo 17 June 1981 J. Richmond
Del Norte Crescent City 8 July 1982 J. Hornstein
Del Norte Yurok, Klamath River 6 June 1990 G. Lester
Del Norte Yurok, Klamath River 18 June 1990 A. Baron
Del Norte Yurok, Klamath River 7 July 1990 G. Lester
El Dorado Wright's Lake 17 July 1955 W. Minturn
El Dorado Wright's Lake, 7,000' 14 July 1956 A. Craig
El Dorado Tahoe City 16 July 1959 G. McCaskie
El Dorado China Flat 9 June 1962 F. Evenden
El Dorado Tahoe City 16 June 1962 P. de Benedictus
El Dorado Union Valley Res. 6 June 1987 E. Harper
El Dorado Kyburz 21 May 1993 M. Johnson
El Dorado S. F. Rubicon River 15 June 1999 J. Hunter
Fresno Kinsh Flat 29 June 1975 R. Hansen
Fresno Teakettle 1 June 1990 K. Purcell
Fresno Teakettle 7 June 1990 K. Purcell
Fresno Markwood 18 June 1990 K. Purcell
Humboldt Orleans 30 May 1988 M. Robbins
Humboldt Arcata and Eureka each summer many observers in chimneys
Humboldt Hoopa Valley June-July R. LeValley
Lassen south Eagle Lake mid June 1974 S. Laymon
Lassen 12 mi. W. of Susanville 7 July 1979 M. Mans
Lassen Manzanita Lake 30 July 1979 B. & C. Yutzy
Lassen Johnstonville 4 June 1980 B. Duel
Lassen Crater Lake 7 July 1984 P. Metropolis
Lassen near Westwood 13 July 1985 J. Hornstein
Lassen Blue Lake, S. Warner Mtns. 20 June 1990 J. Sterling
Lassen Clear Creek 16 June 1997 T. Manolis
Lassen Clear Creek 27 July 1997 T. Manolis
Lassen Susanville/Hobo Camp 16 June 1997 T. Manolis
Madera Rainbow Falls 28 July 1997 N. Lethaby
Marin Lake Lagunitas 15 July 1970 A.L. Carl
Marin Alpine Lake 22 June 1971 W. Purcell
Marin Palomarin 16 June-7 July1979 PRBO
Marin Five Brooks 31 May 1980 J. Evans
Marin Bolinas Lagoon 14 June 1980 J. Evans
Marin Novato 16 July 1980 D. Shuford
Marin Palomarin 3 June 1977 PRBO
Marin Five Brooks 17 June 1977 B. Sorrie
Marin Kent Lake 18 July 1981 D. Shuford
Marin Terralinda 30 May 1982 B. Lenarz
Marin Carson Ridge 5 June 1982 D. Shuford
Marin Palomarin 23 June 1982 PRBO
Marin Garden Club Cyn. 4 July 1982 D. Shuford
Marin Galloway Cyn. all June 1983 D. DeSante
Marin Galloway Cyn. 1 June 1985 PRBO
Marin Bolinas Ridge 30 June 1985 D. Holway
Marin Bolinas 27 July 1985 A. Edwards
Marin Los Gallinas pond 13 July 1988 D. Holway
Marin Bolinas Lagoon 30 July 1995 K. Hansen in chimney
Mariposa Yosemite 17 June 1969 A. Baldridge
Mariposa Yosemite 13 June 1971 T. Chandik
Mariposa Tamarack Flat 25 July 1983 W. Bausman
Mariposa Vernal Falls 20 July 1984 Chisholm
Mariposa North Dome Trail 11 June 1985 R. Marlowe
Modoc Buck Creek 18 June 1975 D. Winkler
Modoc Lassen Creek 21 June 1975 D. Winkler
Modoc Day 8 June 1980 S. Laymon
Modoc Whitehorse Flat River 3 June 1985 M. Robbins
Modoc Thoms Creek & Hwy 299 5 June 1985 J. Greenhouse
Modoc Clear Lake 15 July 1985 D. Shuford
Modoc Soup Creek, S.Warner Mtns. 20 June 1990 J. Sterling
Modoc Ft. Bidwell 11 August 1988 J. Sterling in chimney
Modoc Ft. Bidwell June & July 1990 J. Sterling in chimney
Modoc Ft. Bidwell June & July 1991 J. Sterling in chimney
Modoc near Eagleville 15 July 1990 J. Sterling
Modoc Cedar Pass June & July 1991 J. Sterling
Modoc S. Warner Mtns. 6 July 1991 A. Baron
Modoc N. Happy Camp Mtn. 7 June 1998 B. Williams pair entered snag
Mono Paha Campground 20 July 1985 H. Green
Monterey Torres and Grimes Creek 5 August 1984 D. Roberson
Monterey Big Sur River Mouth 8 June 1985 D. Roberson
Monterey Partington Cyn. 29 June 1991 D. Roberson
Monterey Big Sur River Mouth June to Sept. 1996 D. Roberson
Monterey Big Sur River Mouth summer 2000 D. Roberson
Monterey Lower Stoney Res. 19 June 2000 J. Banks
Nevada Boca Res. 16 July 1959 G. McCaskie
Nevada Sagehen Creek 19 July 1966 H. Cogswell
Placer Tahoe City 20 June 1982 D. Yee
Placer French Meadows 27 June 1982 T. Chandik
Placer Kyburz 21 May 1993 M. Johnson
Plumas Buck's Lake 9 August 1973 R. Stallcup
Plumas Butterfly 2 July 1974 P. Metropolis
Plumas Chester 5 July 1984 H. Green
Plumas L. Almanor 22 July 1987 H. Green
San Mateo Skyline Ridge 16 June 1981 D. Houk
San Mateo Skyline Ranch 29 June 1986 P. Noble
San Mateo Skyline Ranch 13 July 1986 P. Noble
San Mateo Pescadero June & July 1987 H. Green
San Mateo Gazos Creek 1 July 1987 H. Green
San Mateo Gazos Creek 8 June 1988 H. Green
San Mateo Skyline Ridge 11 June 1988 W. Bausman
San Mateo Ano Nuevo 6 July 1988 P. Metropolis
San Mateo Portola SP 27 July 1997 P. Metropolis nest in chimney
Santa Clara Los Gatos 16 July 1957 E. Smith in chimney
Santa Clara Saratoga 18 June 1959 E. Smith in chimney
Santa Clara Rancho San Antonio 4 July 1986 A. Edwards
Santa Clara Coyote Creek 6 June 1987 D. Roberson
Santa Clara Vasona Res. 6 June 1987 W. Bausman
Santa Clara Fremont Older O.S.P. 22 June 1987 W. Bausman
Santa Clara Saratoga 7 July 1987 W. Bausman
Santa Clara Los Gatos 28 June 1991 J. DuBois in chimney
Santa Clara Stevens Creek Res. 21 June 1997 M. Mammoser
Santa Clara Calabazas Creek 21 June 1997 S. Rottenborn high count
Santa Clara Los Altos Hills 23 July 1998 B. Dale in chimney
Santa Clara Saratoga 22 July 1999 R. Givens in chimney
Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Swamp 17 July 1955 A. Craig
Santa Cruz Aptos 21 July 1985 B. Labar in chimney
Santa Cruz Ben Lomond 6 June 1987 N. Naslund in chimney
Santa Cruz Summit Meadows 16 June 1987 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz UC Santa Cruz 17 June 1987 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz Big Basin S.P. 20 June 1987 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz Soquel 26 June 1987 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz Big Basin S.P. 30 June 1987 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz Brookdale 3 July 1987 N. Naslund in chimney
Santa Cruz Henry Cowell S.P. 15 July 1987 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz San Lorenzo River 24 July 1987 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz Sycamore Grove 5 June 1988 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz San Lorenzo River 25 June 1988 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz Brookdale 12 July 1988 N. Naslund in chimney
Santa Cruz Scotts Valley 25 July 1988 N. Naslund in chimney
Santa Cruz Big Basin S.P. 11 June 1989 P. Paton
Santa Cruz Blooms Creek Campground 27 June 1989 N. Naslund
Santa Cruz Aptos Village 20 July 1999 D. Suddjian in chimney
Santa Cruz Aptos Village 12 August D. Suddjian nest in chimney
Santa Cruz Big Creek 2 June 2000 D. Suddjian
Santa Cruz San Lorenzo River 7 June 2000 C. Em? in chimney
Santa Cruz San Lorenzo River 9 June 2000 C. Em? in snag
Santa Cruz Rancho Del Oso 2 July 2000 T. Ne?
Santa Cruz Big Basin Redwoods 10-29 July 2000 D. Suddjian in snag
Shasta Ft. Cook 2 June 1971 T. Manolis
Shasta Burney Falls 10 July 1979 B. & C. Yutzy
Shasta Hat Creek town June & July 1990 J. Sterling
Shasta Burney Falls June & July 1990 J. Sterling
Shasta Hat Creek at Pit River June & July 1990 J. Sterling
Shasta Hat Creek at Pit River June & July 1991 J. Sterling
Shasta Burney Falls June & July 1991 J. Sterling
Shasta Lake Britton 26 July 2000 B. Yutzy ~300 birds
Sierra Chapman Creek 20 July 1962 F. Evenden
Sierra Carman Valley 9 June 1998 D. Shuford
Sierra Bassett’s Lodge 12 June 1999 M. Eaton
Sierra near Sierra City 12 June 2000 D. Shuford
Siskiyou Bull Mtn. 18 June 1980 S. Laymon
Siskiyou Cedar Lake 22 June 1980 B. & C. Yutzy
Siskiyou Butler Creek 2 June 1985 M. Robbins
Siskiyou Crepo Creek 1 June 1986 M. Robbins
Siskiyou Thompson Creek 27 May 1987 M. Robbins
Siskiyou Somes Bar 30 May 1988 M. Robbins
Siskiyou Seiad 3 June 1989 M. Robbins
Sonoma Gualala 16 June 1956 W. Pursell
Sonoma Timber Hill 17 July 1956 G. Bolander
Sonoma Duncan Mills 25 May 1956 J. Kelly
Sonoma Santa Rosa 10 July 1962 N. Mestechin
Sonoma Sonoma nested in '61,'63 N. Mestechin
Sonoma Sonoma 11 July 1979 L. Binford in chimney
Sonoma Gualala 11 July 1982 T. Gates
Sonoma Austin Creek 27 July 1983 D. Beall
Sonoma Two Rock 13 July 1986 R. Marlowe
Sonoma Healdsburg 22 July 1986 J. Smith
Sonoma Duncan’s Landing 17 June 1989 R. Rudesill in chimney
Sonoma Monte Rio 24 June 1989 D. Willard
Sonoma Stewart’s Point 25 May 1990 B. Lenarz in chimney
Sonoma Dry Creek 2 July 1990 Bird Rescue Ctr. nestlings
Sonoma Healdsburg 20 July 1990 M. McCulley
Sonoma Gualala 1 June 1991 M. Parmeter
Sonoma Oakmont summer 1999 B. Burridge many in chimneys
Tehama Chico Meadows 13 July 1962 T. Rodgers
Tehama Elan Creek Campground 15 July 1962 E.Hodnette
Tehama Butte Creek (2000 ft. elev.) June-July 2000 J. Sterling
Trinity Waterman Ridge 20 July 1982 K. Rosenberg
Trinity Hayfork 20 June 1995 G. Hazard
Trinity Hyampom 6 July-25 Aug.1995 G. Hazard
Trinity Hayfork 14 June 1997 T. Easterla
Trinity Coffie Creek Road 14 June 1998 S. Glover
Tulare Colby Meadow 7 July 1952 P. Raven
Tulare Hogietown Picnic Area 7 July 1973 A. Baldridge
Tulare Log Meadow 6 July 1974 D. DeSante nest in tree
Tulare Near Badger 19 June 1975 R. Hansen
Tulare Log Meadow 9 July 1979 L. Norris
Tulare Park Ridge Lookout 18 June 1980 L. Norris
Tulare Big Stump 2 August 1982 J. Warner
Tulare Potwisha Campground 10 June-1 Aug.1984 J. Boone
Tulare Wolverton Area 12 June 1984 J. Boone
Tulare Crescent Meadow 26 June 1984 G. San Miguel
Tulare Moro Rock 4 July 1984 J. Boone
Tulare Big Stump 3 June-30 July 1985 J. Warner
Tulare Ash Mountain 17 June 1985 L. Norris
Tulare Grant Grove 28 June 1985 G. San Miguel
Tulare Lodgepole 30 June 1985 J. Boone
Tulare Pine Camp 30 June 1985 G. San Miguel
Tulare Big Baldy Trail 7 July 1985 G. San Miguel
Tulare Log Meadow 11 July 1985 J. Boone
Tulare Potwisha Campground 31 July 1985 J. Boone
Tulare Big Stump 4-11 June 1986 J. Warner
Tulare Wolverton Meadow 18 June 1986 J. Boone
Tulare Crescent Meadow 25 July 1986 D. Graber
Tulare Grant Grove 16 July 1987 G. San Miguel
Tulare Big Stump 19 July 1987 J. Warner
Tulare Redwood Saddle 10-11 June 1988 G. San Miguel
Tulare South Fork Campground 12 June-9 Aug.1988 T. Jeffrey
Tulare Grant Grove 14 July 1988 G. San Miguel
Tulare Wolverton Meadow 2 August 1988 J. Warner
Tulare Wolverton Meadow 24 June 1989 G. San Miguel
Tulare Dorst Creek 6 June 1990 G. San Miguel
Tulare Dorst Creek 18 June 1997 D. Roberson
Tuolumne Crane Flat June & July 1971 M. Mans
Tuolumne Crane Flat 8 July 1973 M. Mans
Tuolumne Crane Flat 1 July 1974 ?
Tuolumne Hodgdon Meadow 27 June 1982 Keeler
Tuolumne Crane Flat 9-28 July 1985 J. Lovio
Tuolumne Crane Flat 9 June 1986 P. Metropolis
Tuolumne Crane Flat 20 June 1986 D. Suddjian
Tuolumne Crane Flat 26 June 1987 D. Suddjian
Tuolumne Harden Flat 21 July 1988 R. Erickson
Tuolumne Siesta Lake 5 July 1999 M. Eaton
Yuba W. of Yuba Pass 16 June 1973 ?
Yuba Yuba Summit 12 June 1976 J. Richmond
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